Monday, January 19, 2015

130,000 Pages of Classified UFO Files Available on the Black Vault, Nothing on Roswell

The United States government just declassified 130,000 pages of UFO reports collected during the Air Force's Project Blue Book (which also ran under Project Sign and Project Grudge) investigation into UFO sightings, which dated from 1947 to 1969. The documents are now available online at the Black Vault. For the Black Vault's founder, John Greenewald, this is the culmination of nearly 2 decades of Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.

Unfortunately, there's one thing that's sure to irk UFO/conspiracy enthusiasts: nothing on the Roswell incident was included.

Before getting too excited and into Roswell (and where the files could have gone), it is important to realize that many of the UFO reports can be easily explained in a down to Earth manner. Misidentified aircraft of Earthly origin can account for a large number of the night sightings. Other common explanations for UFO sightings include meteors, satellites, and planets. However, of 12,618 reports collected during the 22-year Air Force investigation, 701 remain classified as 'unidentified.'

Now, onto Roswell.

A complicating factor in the goal of releasing UFO files to the public (and the fact that the released files rarely contribute any new information to UFO enthusiasts' investigations) is that many may have been transferred away from the military and to private corporations in order to take the information out of the public domain and into the realm of corporate secrecy where FOIA requests cannot touch them. Sound crazy? Consider this: this theory does explain why so many document requests under FOIA come back with the government saying that the files do not exist in their records, which is the response all the FOIA requests on Roswell inevitably result with.

Bottom line: either the government is lying or the records have indeed been moved.

While some hail the release of the documents as hopefully the beginning of a new era of government openness, others see it only as a few tantalizing tidbits to keep the public occupied, especially considering that the newest of these reports are 46 years old. Besides this, the tendency of governments all over the world to downplay, not investigate, and even ridicule the idea of UFOs and alien contact lends more fuel to the conspiracy fire. If UFOs/aliens are not real, why are governments so secretive about the topic?

The truth is out there, but is anyone willing to tell it . . .

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Thursday, January 1, 2015

The 2015 Astrological Horoscope

It's New Year's Day 2015, which means that Google searches for the 2015 horoscope are going to be one of the most popular on search engines this and in the next few days. It is somewhat surprising that searches for the 2015 horoscope will make up such a large part of search engine volume (they always have in the past) considering that the age of science as we know it began over 400 years ago. So, what is astrology and why do people believe it?

Astrology is the ancient belief that the stars and planets shape one's personality and fate. The ancients believed that the zodiac constellations (the ones through which the Sun passes) hold special powers that can shape personality. Also, it was believed that any given constellation was at its most influential when the Sun was present within its boundaries. As the final astrological commandment, the planets themselves have special traits that they can pass on to individuals.

Take these three tenants, combine them with the logical fallacy of post hoc ergo propter hoc (false causal relation) and one gets astrology, the long since debunked belief that planets, stars, and the Sun can impact the fate of humans.

So why do people continue to believe such nonsense? The theories are many.

One belief is that humans like to be part of something bigger than themselves. That's why we have families and join social clubs, we want to belong. Taken to the extreme, some people like the idea that their personal fates are tied to the celestial realm, which seems like the ultimate way to belong to something. Unfortunately, these people are wrong when it comes to the heavens impacting their lives. However, on a much more basic, wondrous level, we are all 
part of the cosmos in that every atom in our bodies was formed either in the Big Bang or in the cores of stars.

Another (false) idea is that astrology provides answers as to why things happen. Put it this way, some people would rather believe that a bad alignment of, perhaps, Mars and Venus is the reason that he/she had a blowup with a significant other. To put it bluntly, some people just hate taking responsibility for things and the heavens can provide an easy scapegoat for life's misfortunes.

A third idea of why people believe in astrology is because those daily astrology columns really serve as an advice column. Want proof? Find and a horoscope. If you read the message closely, you'll see that the predictions aren't predictions at all, but merely suggestions, and rather vague ones at that. For some people though, any advice is good advice. Personally, if you must have advice from strangers, stick to your local Dear Abby-esque column.

A final reason that people believe in astrology is that old habits simply die hard.

So, back to the new year. 2015 is here and, if you're looking for a new year's resolution but just can't seem to settle on one, why not make it a point to kick irrational beliefs like astrology to the curb? Oh, and while you're at it, be sure to toss those lucky shirts, magic charms, and any other object that has potential to harm sound judgment out the door, too.

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Saturday, December 27, 2014

300,000 Hits; Wow!

I've been having a lot of problems with my Internet connectivity of late, hence the complete lack of anything for the past month and a half until a few days ago as more than a fleeting lock on a free wi-fi network is needed to do the research needed for most of my stuff here. Well, the web is back to cooperating and more stuff should be over the horizon come 2015 but, at the present,  my little for-fun website had just eclipsed the 300,000 hit mark! Holy cow! Honestly, I never thought I'd be seeing anywhere near this number of hits so soon especially considering that I started this whole thing as just an online storage backup for my astrophotography. Well, just over 5 years (the first 2 accounted for only a few thousand hits) and over 300,000 hits later, all I can say “thank you!” to all of my readers. Hopefully, you've found my stuff at least a little useful as I have a lot more great stuff planned for the new year. Again, thank you and happy 2015, albeit a few days early!

Thursday, December 25, 2014

What Was the Star of Bethlehem?

It is one of the most universally recognized images of all time but no one knows exactly what it was. For 2000 years, the Star of Bethlehem has captivated people the world over. Described in the Bible as the star that led the 3 Magi to the infant Christ, little else is related about the Star, leaving a lot of questions, and just as many possible answers to its true identity assuming that the whole story of the Star was not made up by the Biblical writers (the Star only appears in the Gospel of Matthew).

One problem that must be confronted right before we can even start to narrow down the possible identities of the Star is this: no one knows exactly when Jesus was born. Our current calendar is based on the birth of Christ in that His birth separates the B.C./A.D. eras. However, it is clear that the dating is wrong as the Bible describes how the Holy Family fled to Egypt to avoid the wrath of King Herod, an well-documented historical figure who died in 4 B.C. Thus, 4 B.C. is the last possible year in which Jesus could have been born. It is now generally thought that Jesus was born anywhere between 8 and 4 B.C.

Now that our time frame has been narrowed down, we can start looking to the sky.

There are two schools of thought about the Star of Bethlehem: it was either astronomical or astrological. Astronomical possibilities include supernova, planets, comets, and conjunctions. In the year 7 B.C., there was a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. However, this is very unlikely to explain the Star as the planets were about a degree (little finger at arm's length) apart. Unless the Magi had very poor eyesight, there is no way that two planets this far apart could be mistaken for a single object and, for that matter, a conjunction of 2 planets to about a degree of each other is nothing that unusual, either. Comets have been suggested, especially since they were often described as “hanging” in the sky. This is exactly as the Star was described in the Bible. Unfortunately, there are no records of any Great Comets visible in the Middle East at that time. A last possible interpretation is a supernova. A bright object was seen for about 70 days in 5 B.C. by Chinese and Korean astronomers. This may just be it, but there's a problem: the star was described as moving, which leads into the other school of thought: astrology.

People at this time were almost universal believers in astrology. A notable exception here were the Jews, who were forbidden to practice astrology at numerous spots in the Old Testament. As far as everyone else was concerned, heavenly bodies had special meaning.

One thing we know was that the Magi came from the East. Considering the geographical location of Judea, “East” almost certainly meant Persia. In Persian language, the word “magi” referred to Zoroastrian priests, who practiced medicine and magic (“magic” comes from “magi”), which could also include astrology, at which the Persians were very sophisticated. Coincidentally, it is this astronomical focus of the Persians that can cause the traditional astronomical explanations for the Star to be discounted.

One particular passage in Matthew can greatly narrow down possible candidates for the true Star of Bethlehem. According to the Gospel, “the star which they had seen in the East went before them till it came and stood over where the young Child was.” If this is to be believed, the Star was a planet. Over the course of months, a star's position will change as it rises about four minutes earlier each night. Stars don't stand still, but planets do.

Observe a planet over the course of a year, noting where it is in the constellations. For most of the time, it moves forward. However, there are times where it stops, reverses course, stops again, then continues forward. This apparent change in direction called retrograde motion is an optical illusion caused by the Earth passing the slower planet as both orbit the Sun. A comparison can be made to passing cars on the highway. As you pass, the slower car seems to travel backwards. The same is true of planets.

Besides retrograde motion, there is more. Planets and constellations had different significances. Jupiter was widely considered to be associated with kingship. The constellation of Aires the ram was often associated with Israel/Judea. Putting this information together with the knowledge that the Star of Bethlehem was almost certainly a planet allows one to start putting the puzzle together.

In 6 B.C., an astronomical/astrological event that fits the bill very nicely occurred. In that year, the planet Jupiter (planet of kingship) moved into the constellation of Aires (the constellation for Israel/Judea). Thus, this could be interpreted as a sign that a new king of Israel was born. To add even more weight to the hypothesis, Jupiter first appeared as a morning object in the East. At this time, the Sun was also in Aires (Jupiter was rising just ahead of the Sun). In astrology, any constellation is at its most influential when the Sun is in it. Also, it was believed at the time that planets were at their most powerful as they emerged in the East after a period of invisibility in the Sun's glare.

As it would have taken the Magi months to reach Bethlehem from Persia, this also explains the motion of the Star. As time progressed, the Magi could have observed Jupiter slow down and stop before going into retrograde motion. The stoppage could have coincided with the arrival of the Magi in Bethlehem after stopping in Jerusalem and being told of the prophecy predicting the Messiah's birth there.

This is by no means more than a hypothesis. The Star of Bethlehem will probably never be conclusively explained. Either way, Merry Christmas!

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Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Tonight's Sky for December 24: Moon Meets Mars

New to astronomy? Want to see Mars but don't know where to look? Well, it's your lucky night as the Moon will be right next to the Red Planet.

To see the Moon and Mars, just go out after sunset and look low in the Southwest. The Moon is, of course, impossible to miss. As for that bright 'star' right next to Luna, well, that's actually Mars. 

Friday, October 31, 2014

Happy Halloween 2014!

"Never mind me, I can bring you good luck . . . "
-Shadow the Cat

It's Halloween, which is not only filled with pop culture but also history and astronomy.

Pop culture: well, wait for tonight and the scary kids and movies.

Astronomy: October 31 is also a cross-quarter day, the mid way point of a season in layman's terms. While inconsequential today, at the dawn of the age of agriculture in about 5000BC, timekeeping was a matter of live and death and any way of measuring time helped keep the latter at bay. In addition to the seasons, the ancients would also mark the mid-way days of any given season as important for this reason, too.

History: with the ancients believing that the the night of October 31 was the time of the year when the barrier between the living and the dead was at its thinnest, it is also interesting to examine the ways the living have tried to contact the dead throughout the ages, especially when combined with the parallel advances in technology that resulted in spirit photography in the mid 1800s. While there are a few examples that cannot be conclusively refuted, some ghost photographs are so laughable it's hard to believe that, at one point, people actually thought they were real.

Oh, yes, black cats aren't bad luck, either. In fact, they're considered lucky in some cultures.

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Monday, October 27, 2014

10 Years Later: October 27, 2004 Total Lunar Eclipse

It was 10 years ago today that I witnessed my first total lunar eclipse and this is, so far, the only one I've managed to witness from start to finish without any obscuring clouds blocking the show for part of the time. Needless to say, this was quite an introduction.

It's weird how one can remember the most minute details of a memorable day (or night).

On October 27, 2004, I was in my senior year of high school and the night also coincided with a college planning event at my local community college. My parents and I went to this event (this was big for them, too) but there was more than my college education on my mind as I knew from my astronomy class in high school that there was going to be a total lunar eclipse that night that would result in the Moon turning a blood-red color.

Unfortunately, there was a problem: clouds.

In my astronomy class, I was directed toward this extremely cool website called the Clear Sky Clock, which has cloud (among other sky-related) forecasts for hundreds of locations across North America. For the night of October 27, 2004, things were looking decidedly iffy, as evidenced by the sky when stepping out of the college planning event, which consisted of a patchwork of clouds and clear sky.

Anyway, my parents took me to the Neilsen, the observatory operated by the Black River Astronomical Society (which I joined a few months after the eclipse) so I could get my extra credit in astronomy class.

Then, almost if on cue, the clouds broke for good just as the show began.

The best part about this whole night is that I have a tangible reminder: a series of pictures. In high school, I was also in the journalism/yearbook class, which allowed me access to these high-tech things called digital cameras. For October 27, I signed out a circa 2000 Sony Mavica, which used 3.5”' floppy discs (good for 6 pics each) for storage for some photo shoot (probably tennis). Needless to say, there was more on my mind than the yearbook photo shoot as I signed out the camera on the day that also coincided with the eclipse.

Taking a 'let's see what happens' attitude toward the eclipse, I brought the camera with me to the Neilsen with the intention of trying to shoot the eclipse.

Result: a series of pics I've yet to duplicate.

Just as the eclipse began, the clouds started to part for good, revealing the Moon in unobscured detail. At first, the lower left corner of the Moon began to disappear. In time, the shadow proceeded to 'eat' the rest of the Moon. Eventually, thanks to light scattering, the Moon turned blood red as totality had arrived.

Just about at midnight, totality ended and the Moon began to turn back to its normal color. At about this time, my parents (to whom I owe an enormous debt of gratitude for not only allowing, but encouraging my hobby) arrived to take me back home. After we got back, they let me stay up to watch the remaining partial phases of the eclipse, which featured the obscured Moon going back to normal for about the next hour or so.

End result: I didn't go to bed until past 2am on a school night but I got to see a total lunar eclipse from start to finish (and captured it on camera), which made being tired the next day at school well worth it.

Now, 10 years later, this still remains a feat I have yet to duplicate (darn clouds)!

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